O Guarani. José de Alencar. PRÓLOGO. Minha prima. — Gostou da minha história, e pede-me um romance; acha que posso fazer alguma coisa neste ramo de. The most Brazilian soul, José de Alencar, conjured a delightful scenario for a O Guarani (originalmente: O Guarany - Romance Brasileiro) by José de freezovralomi.cf FROM THE PORTUGUESE OF JOSÉ MARTINIANO DE ALENCAR. [Many books have been printed in America, from those of Mayne Reid and yet earlier writers.
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The Guarani: Brazilian Novel is a Brazilian novel written by José de Alencar . It was first . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. 1 (Spring, ) José de Alencar's Iracema and the Ambiguities of Writing as narratives: O Guarani () and, the subject of this essay, Iracema (). 20 set. José de Alencar Academia Brasileira de Letras. José Martiniano de Alencar. Nacionalidade Magnum opus, O Guarani, Iracema, Ubirajara.
He also served as superintendent of the royal revenue, and afterward of the custom house at Rio de Janeiro , and showed in all these employments his zeal for the public good, and his devotion to the king. A man of valor and experienced in war, accustomed to combats with the Indians, he rendered great services in explorations. The defeat of Alcacerquibir  and the Spanish domination that followed it changed his life.
A Portuguese of the old school, he considered that he was bound to the king of Portugal by the oath of nobility, and that he owed fealty and homage to him alone. When, then, in , Philip II. Afterward, finding his arm and valor of no avail to the king of Portugal , he swore that he would at least maintain his fidelity till death.
Here a loyal heart, which has never proved false to its oath, can breathe at ease. In this country, which was given me by my king and conquered by my arm, in this free country, thou shall reign, Portugal , as thou shall live in he souls of thy sons.
I swear it! Cinco Minutos. Como e porque sou romancista. Diva- perfil de mulher. Diva - perfil de mulher. Guarany- romance brasileiro. Guerra dos Mascates Volume I. Guerra dos Mascates Volume II. Guerra dos mascates- chronica dos tempos coloniaes Volume 1. Guerra dos mascates- chronica dos tempos coloniaes Volume 2. Luciola, um perfil de mulher. Noite de S. O Gaucho Volume I. O Gaucho Volume II.
O Guarani. O demonio familiar- comedia em quatro actos. O gaucho- romance brasileiro Volume 1. O gaucho- romance brasileiro Volume 2. O jesuita- drama em quatro actos. O jesuita - drama em quatro actos. O sertanejo- romance brasileiro Volume 1. O sertanejo- romance brasileiro Volume 2. O sertanejo Volume I. O sertanejo Volume II. O systema representativo. Senhora- perfil de mulher Volume 1.
Senhora- perfil de mulher Volume 2. But what is interesting about the novel is precisely the way in which Alencar complicates this archetypical story. The relationship between Iracema and Martim differs from other "endless meetings" chronicled.
Iracema, on the contrary, is clearly the active partner, while Martim is characterized by his passivity.
In order to become Tupi, Martim undergoes a ceremony where Poti and Iracema not only paint, but, to use the narrator's word, "write" on Martim's body: "Depois variaram os cores, e muitos guerreiros costumaram escrever os emblemas de sus feitos" 67 — "They also varied the colors, and many warriors used to write the emblems of their deeds.
The ceremony concludes with Iracema giving Martin a Tupi name: Cotiabo —the one that has been painted on. The novel here has practically reversed the "pattem" Sommer writes about: the conqueror has been conquered, the seducer seduced.
Martim even changes his name. Furthermore, the initiation ceremony is characterized by Martim's complete passivity, while Iracema and Poti act write on his body.
It is interesting that the reaffirmation of Martim's Portuguese identity Mester, Vol. It is claimed that this word describes a a feeling not only characteristic of Portuguese and Brazilian cultures but exclusive to them, although it belongs to the same semantic field as the English word nostalgia. The uniqueness of the word "saudade" is evidenced in the maintenance of the Portuguese word in the English transia tion.
At the end of the novel, when Martim returns, his brief Tupi identity as Cotiabo is completely forgotten. He establishes a Portu- guese settlement, and brings with him a Catholic Priest. Nevertheless, the novel is unusual in its hesitation between which pole of the binary opposition to favor.
The end result is a novel where each of these characters is dominant and active during part of the narrative. Only at the end are Portuguese colonialism, patiiarchy, and language, fully established, but at the price of nostalgia and sadness.
Although the outcome — establishment of patriarchy and Portuguese superiority — is not fully subverted, an element of doubt is present in the narrative's ending. It is noteworthy Mester, Vol.
More- over, the conqueror's emotions are not meaningless. After ali, "a agra saudade" 87 — " the bitter Saudade" —implies a lack that sub- verts any claim to hegemonic completion. Even the phrase, "will give rise to history and growth," coincides with Alencar's belief Ln the capacity of a Tupi influenced Brazilian Portuguese which is a language produced by a translational process to produce "o verdadeiro poema nacional" 89 "the true national poem.
As David Haberly points out, Iracema is a "highly symboUc etiology of the creation. Iracema is a creation myth that is built on the contact between two cultures: the Indian and the Portuguese. Rather than the imposition by force of one culture over the other, translation presents the apparent voluntary 1 02 Iracema: Writing as Translation submission of the target language to that of the other. And since translation can be seen as being part of intercultural relationships —as the Romantics proclaimed — it can be interpreted synechdochally as presenting an ethical model that contrasts with the brutal reality of imperialism and domination.
A problem arises when one compares the "myth" created by Alencar with the "reaHty" of Portuguese conquest and colonization.
But even the most sununary review of the nation's history shows Alencar's description to be false.
For instance, John Hemming has calculated that from the time of the arrival of the Portuguese, , to the Amerindian population decreased from 2,, to , Alencar presents a rewriting of a history of violence into a myth of the tragic love affair between Iracema and Martim. Interestingly, "myth" was considered the highest form of translation during the Romantic period Berman Novalis wrote: "The novel, as it were, is free history —the mythology of history, as it were" qtd.
Yet precisely by writing a novel that is "the mythology of history" —and the "history" in question is the conquest of Mester, Vol. The principal psychological and politicai need being that of establishing a sense of politicai and histori- cal difference for the new Brazilian Republic with respect to Portugal Sommer Therefore, the homology between Alencar, as a "trans- lational" writer, and as a creator of historie, social, and politicai myths is close to perfect.
Alencar in both aspects of his work suppresses elements of the Tupi culture, language, and history, in deference to the Brazilian readers' expectations and needs. Jaguaribe" , because they are not included in Isabel Burton's English translation of the novel. All other quotations from Iracema are taken from her translation.
She has also made her translation even "stranger" than the Portuguese original Her " White Warrior's son" is in the original a simple "teu".
Another example can be found on page 96, where the original "cabana" cabin, hut becomes "wigwam. Taylor, in his A Portuguese-English Dictionary translates "saudade" as: "longing, yearning for someone ; 'memory imbued with longing'; fond remembrance; nostalgia, homesickness" See Bums Isabel Burton.