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Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics 4th edition. Home · Tietz DOWNLOAD PDF Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 4th Edition. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics 5th Edition | As the definitive reference for clinical chemistry. Tietz Fundamentals of. Clinical Chemistry. ISBN: Table Of Contents: PART I. LABORATORY PRINCIPLES. 1 (63). Introduction to Clinical.
Well-drawn chemical structures and informative tables appropriately accent the text. Figures emphasize and clarify important issues in each chapter. The organization of each analyte subsection to include a description of methods, including a selected detailed procedure with comments and reference intervals, sets this medical textbook apart from others as one special for clinical chemistry.
This section on analytes contains a multitude of pertinent facts and can serve as an important reference for the clinical chemist.
The last section covers the pathophysiology of disease as it relates to clinical chemistry. Here the analytes are arranged in chapters according to organ system, providing the medical background necessary to afford interpretation in clinical chemistry. Tables, such as laboratory findings during normal pregnancy, are informative and useful.
Such sections condense important information from a wide range of scattered sources, making this book an efficient reference source. New chapters, such as the one on cytokines, provide important physiologic background and clinical relevance to a rapidly emerging discipline of investigation.
Although such an area is not, at present, part of the mainstream of clinical chemistry, it represents an important subject for clinical research and has great likelihood of joining the mainstream collection of analytes. The editors have been thoughtful in thinking ahead. The editors have maintained a uniform style throughout the book.
Equations and chemical formulas are clear and easy to read. Tables are excellent as well as informative. The diagrams and figures are instructive, but unfortunately, almost all are lacking in color. The text reads easily and presents abundant information in adequate detail. What facts the text omits may be found in the references, which are current. One of the most critical elements of any textbook is its index. The index in this book is comprehensive as well as being well-focused, and one can quickly identify the appropriate page for almost any subject of interest.
This book represents an excellent textbook. It is accurate and comprehensive, yet it is organized with enough care to be easy to use. T h e importance of this step is a specification. A more general role for audit. From Price CP. All of the audit activities are found in the oractice of completeness of literature review and the evidence-based laboratory medicine.
As part of the guideline development process. The ability to use assays for monitoring and ZOOQ In fact. T h e components of the audit cycle are depicted in Figure Experts in the clinical content area-to assess Audit to Monitor orkload and Demand however.
Evidence-based person biological variation are available for virtually all corn. Each of these reviews can add value. Use of this type evidence of quality specification for imprecision and bias appears appro- priate in guidelines.
Such a specification may then generate obser- underscored by the finding that one of the most common vations. When conducting an audit of workload for peers. Levels 1 4 of optimum. T h e clinical audit can improve clinical practice. In many cases reviews. Clin Chem monly used tests. A t the reasons for nonadherence to guidelines is that the guidelines outset it provides the comparative measure against which to are outdated.
The qualicy of reporting in diagnostic test research: Mol BW. This "summary of use" and portfolio of evidence forms the 8. Decks JJ. Cat-activeness of ously important to have ensured that a full program of educa. Towmds complete and accuiatc rcporring of studies of receipt of the result diagnostic accuracy: Atkins D. Systematic rcviews in health care: Colditi GA. Laboratory related measures of patient outcomes: The principles provide An algorithm may be embedded in the electronic requesting the logic on which all of the elements of practice are founded.
Evidence-based laboratory medicine from basis of the "standard operating procedure" for the clinical use principles to outcomes. Introduction to Clinical Chemistry and Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine 17 the appropriateness of the test requests. Evidence-based laboratory medicine: JAhilA tion of users has been completed and that any other changes Gatsonis CA.
Fuchs CS. BMJ These questions. With the advent of electronic requesting and the electronic patient record. Price CP. The development of any new test should lead related to this chapter.
Lancet Identification of the decision s likely to be made on Lijmer JG. Reitsma JB. Christenson RH. Frarier AL. Bossqt PM. Briss PA. AACC Press. Glasiiou PP. Falck-Ytter Y. Before auditing the introduction of a new test. Itwig Identification of the action s likely to be taken on LM. Chrisrcnson RH. Kuntz KM. Randomisrd comparisons of with other tests. What clinical question is being asked? Audit to Monitor Adherence to What action will be taken following the decision? This is the scenario that probably best reflects the way in which What risks are associated with not receiving the the "clinical audit" was first envisaged and practiced.
Bissel MG. Gaisonis CA. Bossuvt PM. Oosterhuis WP. Eccles M. Flotrorp S. Brat D. Boyd JC. Standards for Reporting of Identification of the likely outcome s Diagnostic Accuracy. From evidencc to guidelines. Glaiiou PP. Bossuyt PM. The application of evidence-based practice is far Audit to Monitor the lntro more complex for laboratory medicine than for therapeutic An audit can be used to ensure 1 that the change in practice interventions but critical for success. The tools of evidence-based laboratory medicine provide the ing e.
This approach is the most likely to identify when a setting? Analysis and prcscmation of data. Glasiiou P. Shrkelle PG.
Rosenberg WMC. Evidence-based guidelines in laboratarv medicine: Guyatt GH. Colditi G. Schulz KF. Heisterkamp S. JAMA January 4. Evidence-based medicine: Tostcson ANA. JAMA Lau J. Pewsnrr D. Empirical evidence of designmlated bias in developing guidelines. Waalf SH. Chalmers TC. Bonsel GJ. Sackett DL. Updated6 Liimer JG. Methodology in diagnostic labuiatoly test research in Clmicol Chemisny Reid MC. BM] Mohei D. Muir Gray JA. Ramms-Rincirn JM.
Systematic reviews in laboratory Haynes RB. Getting better but still not good. Grirnshaw J. Watine J. Use of methodoioaical standards in June Egger M. Clvistenson Hernindei-Agaado I. Sandberg S.
Mu1 BW. Richardson Mosteiler F. Gatsonis C. Feinstein AR. Users' guides to the medical literature: Lachs MS. AMA Press. Clinical Mculen JH.
Clin Chim Acta Prim MH. Pewsncr D. Guidelines for meta-analyses evaluating diagnostic tests. Rrnnie D. Systematic reviews in laborarmy medicine: A solution or reagent that resists a change in pH Reference Material: A material or substance. An instrument used for weighing. High-energy electron emitted as a result methods. Use of a photographic emulsion x-ray determined within stated measurement uncertainties.
These pathogens include. Recognize and interpret various laboratory hazard signage and state decay to one-half the amount originally present. The process diluting of reducing the 4. Exposure Control Plan: A set of written instructions half-life. Describe an atom and define atomic number. Bloodborne Pathogens: Pathogenic microorganisms that are Radioactivity: Spontaneous decay of atoms radionuclides present in human blood. High-energy photon emitted as a result of matter. The process of separating molecules by size Secondary Reference Material: A reference material that or density using centrifugal forces generated by a spinning contains one or more analytes in a matrix that reproduces.
Understand centrifugation and balances and the terminology related work demands by defining postures which minimize to each and calculate RCF and rpm when given the appropriate unnecessary static work and reduce the forces working. Used for calibration of definitive methods. The procedural steps performed to determine the stable. State the purpose of an ergonomics program. List four types of radioactive decay.
The process of measuring the mass weight of Describe the hazards of radiation and the risks of radiation exposure. Define radioactive decay. Primary Reference Material: A thoroughly characterized. The time period required for a radionuclide to List the different available pipettes.
A set of written instructions well established to he used for the calibration of an describing the procedures required to protect employees apparatus. State the principles of autoradiography and scintillation counting. List two types of scintillation counters and their uses in the laboratory.
A system of weights and measures based on Analvte: A substance or constituent for which the laboratop the meter as a standard unit of length. Water purified and classified for immunodeficiency virus HIV. The study of capabilities in relationship to 5. A technical Universal Precautions: A n approach to infection control.
The symbol site that accompanies this book at http: Molality is properly expressed as mollkg. Edward R. In the past. Expressing Concentrations of an Agency of the U S. Powsner and John C. Gram equivalent weight as oxidatant or reductant Reference Materials.
Burtis CA. This is typically how concentrations of if known to be infectious for HIV. Tietz textbook of clinical chem. A molal solution contains 1 mol of solute General laboratory techniques and procedures. A internal and external quality assurance purposes. Widman on. Young DS. Although considered incorrect and inappropriate by metrolo- According to the concept of Universal Precautions..
An internationally rian is concerned primarily with the measurement of gases or adopted system of measurement. By materials. Used primarily for and are frequently referred to as analytes or measurands.
The units of the system solids in liquids. Ashwood ER. The following equations define the expressions of concen-. A n exception to the general expression of analyte o reliably perform qualitative and quantitative analyses concentrations in terms of volume of solution is the measure- on body fluids and tissue. In laboratory practice.
Kahn SE. In the clinical laboratory. This terminology indicates an bloodborne pathogens.. Normality of a solution tions of Drs. When the solution and solvent are both liquids. Considering that 1 cubic meter rep- dilution at which a particular reaction takes place A comparison of results metric system A supplemental unit is a unit that con- forms to the SI but that has not been classified as either base..
The SI is a different system that was accepted internationally in Many international clinical laboratory organizations and cates how many units are contained in the property. In the early development of the tries who have yet to accept SI units.. The The minute. Liter is the name of the submultiple cubic decimeter of the SI unit of In clinical laboratory practice.. Regarding gases in solution. The United States is one of the few coun- been made in metric units.
A deriued unit is derived mathematically from two or more base units Table Some other non-SI units time in a single solvent.. For example.. The units of the system are called SI units.. The unit identifies the dimension-mass. Henry's law states that the CGPM recommends that such exceptional units as the liter solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the should not be combined with SI units and preferably should pressure of the gas above the liquid at equilibrium.
A meaninpful measurement is exmessed with both a number and a unit. When several gases are dissolved at the same from the second could supplant them. T h e solubiliq of viduals in their daily lives. A t present only the radian for plane angles and sample contains mg of Na per liter.
Titer is resents some times the blood volume of an adult human. Using Decimal Multiples and the SI. Details of the SI system are found in an and indeed boiling a liquid frequently drives out all dissolved expanded version of this chapter.
The number indi. T h e first absolute systems were based on the centimeter. Thus as the he replaced with SI units whenever possible. HL7 Table The availability and quality of the refer- ence materials used to calibrate assays and to monitor their analytical performance also are important. A n equal sign IUPAC has established criteria for "primary stan- dards. A comma 5.
Version 2. The name of the system or its abbreviation The quantity name or its abbreviation 6. A similar standard. The solutes and solvents used in analytical work are reagent grade chemicals.. The numerical value and the unit or its abbreviation. A dash two hyphens 3.
Systems mittee for Standardization of the Comite Europeen de developed for expressing the results produced by the clinical Normalisation CEN Technical Committee http: The name of the analyte never abbreviated with an initial capital letter 4.
Laboratory chemicals are available in a variety of grades. Health Level Seven.. When connected in series. Deioniza- medicine. It is the oldest method wavelength of nanometers eliminates many bacteria and of water purification. Type water may be used for glassware washing. As a result. T h e columns may contain cation exchangers. T h e use of ultraviolet radiation at the biocidal substance from less volatile substances.
Introduction to Principles of Laboratory Analyses and Safety 23 for the clinical chemistry laboratory. The preparation of many reagents and solutions used in the A single-bed deionize1 generally is capable of clinical laboratory requires "pure" water.
In ties. Belgium http: Problems with distillation for preparing cleaves many ionizing organics that are then removed by reagent water include the carryover of volatile impurities and deionization.
This will result in contamination of the distil. Final rinsing. Distillation Ultraviolet Oxidation Distillation isthe process of vaporizing and condensing a liquid Ultraviolet oxidation is another method that works well as part to purify or concentrate a substance or to separate a volatile of a total system.
It may also be used for certain qualita- water. Although the process is inadequate for producing reagent practice. Such water is most conveniently prepared nccls. Data of interest to the user e. Secondary reference materials are solutions whose concen- Testing for Water Purity trations cannot be prepared by weighing the solute and dissolv- A t a minimum.
Not all standard reference materials have the properties an ultraviolet UV detector. This water should be used immediately supplied with a certificate of analysis for each lot. For accurate work.. They are designed either 1 to contain such as "spectrograde. These may then be used to characterize other materials. Terms container to another. These specifications have also become the de facto stan. It should be noted that measurements taken at the reference method.
The Committee on metric sampling and dispensing. There are also automatic photomet- purification. They are of reference materials. Pipettes used in clinical. Examples of such standards available sary to add a final 0. They must not be hygroscopic. These reagent grade chemicals are of very high purity and are recommended for quantitative or ampling and Dispensing qualitative analyses.
Class A glassware is certified to conform to the specifications outlined in NIST Many analytical techniques require reagents whose purity circular T h e content. Manu- facturers offer selected chemicals that have been especially Pipettes purified to meet specific requirements. Clinical chemistry procedures require accurate volumetric measurements to ensure accurate results. These chem- after production. These techniques are discussed in detail in of impurity reported.
Developments in improved specifications set down in the United States Pharmacopeia design of pipetting systems include robotic automation.
Chemicals labeled capability to provide electronic and personal computer PC purified. No specifications for storage systems for type icals must be stable substances of definite composition that can I water are given because it is not possible to maintain the high be dried.
T o meet the specifications for high-performance liquid and the IRMM. Here we discuss the basic techniques of volu- which maximum impurities are listed. These highly purified chemicals may bc weighed out directly Such procedures include trace metal. There is no uniform Pipettes are used for the transfer of a volume of liquid from one designation for these chemicals and organic solvents.
These are available in two forms: Storage should be kept to a minimum. No peaks exceeding the analyti. Transfer pipettes include both volumetric and Ostwald-Fohn pipettes Figure A calibration mark is etched around the upper suction tube. The bore of the delivery orifice should be sufficiently narrow so that rapid outflow of liquid and incomplete drainage cannot cause measurement errors beyond tolerances specified.
Controlled slow drainage is required. With the use of a pipet- Transfer and Measuring Pipettes ting bulb. A volumnetric transfer pipette Figure In contrast to a volumetric pipette. The reliability of the calibration of the volumetric pipette decreases with a decrease in size. B are similar to volumet- ric pipettes but have their bulb closer to the delivery tip and are used for the accurate measurement of viscous fluids. A is calibrated to deliver accurately a fixed volume of a dilute aqueous solu- tion.
They consist of a cylindrical bulb joined at both ends to narrower glass tubing. Ostwald-Folin pipettes Figure Measuring and serological pipettes are scored in units When filled with opaque fluids. Ostwald-Folin pipette has an etched ring near the mouthpiece.
Semiautomatic and Automatic Pipettes and Dispensers Figure D must be blown out to improve the precision of measurements. Aliquots of the tip. This is a plunger is moved through a complete cycle. This automated sighted at eye level. Each channel is piston driven to allow the user to transfer. Serological pipettes are calibrated to liquid sensine.
Two- and then the remaining liquid is blown out. Depending o n the when using volumetric pipettes. Volumes are expressed in microliters pL. The Mohr retain less inner surface film than does glass. Ostwald-Folin micro wells. This type of liquid dispensing always be used. A shows an automatic dispensing apparatus that deliverv of the solution between the calibration marks.
Mohr pipettes require a controlled Figure This device aspirates and Measuring Pipettes. These devices are programmable and are used for simultaneously dispensing aliquots of liquid into multiple wells.
Models that allow for deliver the entire volume of the pipette and has an etched ring digital adjustment of the volume aspirated and dispensed are or pair of rings near the bulb end of the pipette signifying available. In such devices. In some systems. T h e device is microprocessor controlled and There are general pipetting techniques that apply to the is easily programmed.
The flow of the liquid should be unrestricted with Such pipettes 1 pipette is calibrated between two marks on the stem.
Two kinds are available. Micropipettes are generally available in small sizes. Twenty-one dispensing programs are pipettes described above. This type of device. Its disposable. Volumetric t m f e r. C illustrates an electronically operated. In practice.
The pipette is first allowed to drain.
It is possible to adjust this device to aspirate as little erally considered sufficiently accurate for measuring samples as 1 pL of one liquid and to deliver it with as much as pL and calibrators. This first group of chapters provides adequate definitions of technical words and concepts and provides sufficient references to begin searching the subject matter in depth. Because monographs and review articles abound on these subjects, the editors and contributing authors have made a wise choice in emphasizing breadth and succinctness.
The chapters on analytes demonstrate the strength of this book by providing a thorough, yet carefully presented biochemical background for each analyte. Well-drawn chemical structures and informative tables appropriately accent the text.
Figures emphasize and clarify important issues in each chapter. The organization of each analyte subsection to include a description of methods, including a selected detailed procedure with comments and reference intervals, sets this medical textbook apart from others as one special for clinical chemistry.
This section on analytes contains a multitude of pertinent facts and can serve as an important reference for the clinical chemist. The last section covers the pathophysiology of disease as it relates to clinical chemistry. Here the analytes are arranged in chapters according to organ system, providing the medical background necessary to afford interpretation in clinical chemistry.
Tables, such as laboratory findings during normal pregnancy, are informative and useful. Such sections condense important information from a wide range of scattered sources, making this book an efficient reference source.